Wednesday, November 30, 2022

The Ecphora

A Beachcomber’s View: The Unusual and Extinct Ecphora Shell

In September I was in Norfolk, Virginia, and had the opportunity to beachcomb along the shores of the Chesapeake Bay. By sheer coincidence, I was able to beachcomb on the Bay during a new moon, which is significant to a beachcomber because of the effects the moon can have on the tidal heights, which impact the shells that wash up on the shoreline.

For a beachcomber, the tide is everything. Full moons and new moons can affect the height of the tide lines greatly, but the new moon often gets overlooked because it isn’t visible like the full moon. A new moon is when the moon is located between the sun and the earth, which makes the moon seem invisible to us earthlings. The crescent moon or the fingernail moon is what appears in the sky before and after the new moon phase. During a new or full moon phase, the gravitational pull of the moon has a stronger effect on the oceans, making the tide lines higher and lower than normal. The extreme impact that the moon has on the height of the tide during these phases means a greater chance of finding something unexpected.

Whenever I go beachcombing, no matter if it’s for 10 minutes or two hours, I always take a bag for trash. I also make sure I take a reusable bag because, one – they are reusable, and two – they are easy to clean. My trash collecting led me in a direction I don’t typically go, but I don’t ignore trash on the beach, and on this day, it led me to a glorious treasure.

I was only able to walk the shoreline for a short bit of time, and during my initial search of the beach, I noticed right away that there were not a lot of shell pits or a thick debris line to look through, but I did notice how extremely low the tide was.

There were several pipes exposed that seemed to have been buried for quite some time, and that’s where I found it: Laying in between two of these huge pipes, all alone, was this one seashell, a shell that I had never seen before.

Since I had never seen this shell before, I had a hard time figuring out what it was, but talking to someone at work gave me the idea to use Google Lens for help. I took a picture of the shell and Google Lens used the image to search the internet for similar images, and the result was astonishing.

I had found an Ecphora seashell.

This magnificent shell isn’t the prettiest in color, as it is a dull, pastel taupe brown, and it certainly isn’t the biggest in my collection, measuring a mere 2″ inches, but I can safely say it is the oldest one I have ever discovered.

The Ecphora is an extinct gastropod, and since this one was found on the Chesapeake Bay in Norfolk, my best guess is that it is an Ecphora quadricostata species that lived during the Pliocene epoch, which ranges from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years ago.

The raised ridges along its body give it a very distinct look, which reminds me of one of my favorite shells, the Imperial Venus Clam, which also has ridges like the Ecphora shell, but a clam is a bivalve and an Ecphora is a gastropod.

During my research of this amazing specimen, I learned that the Paleontological Research Institute (PRI) uses the image of this beautiful shell as its logo. It was originally adopted by the founder of the Institute in 1932, and it has been the official image of their seal ever since. They also have an excellent article on the history of this shell on their website.

I believe I have mentioned before that the Ecphora is Maryland's State Fossil. They are pretty common in the cliffs at Matoaka Cottages. The best place to look is in relatively fresh falls from the cliff. The Ecphoras are usually full of mud, and survive the falls OK, but they are fragile enough that even our light surf breaks them up easily and small bits of the brown shell are common in the shell hash along the surf, and polish nicely to a nice amber color. Intact ones are very rare, usually some part of the tip, and maybe the lower sections are missing, even in specimens fresh out of the cliff. We collect a fair number along the way. Here is a shot of the Ecphora pile in our fossil case:


Biden Nantucket Vacation Flames Out

Fox, Biden’s Secret Service rental vehicles burst into flames after he left Nantucket vacation. Haut Hair's Beege Wellborn, Wait, whut?! Biden's Nantucket Secret Service rental vehicles burst into flames. Bob Spencer at Haut Hair, There Once Was A Prez on Nantucket, and Each of His Cars, a Fire Struck It. There's speculation that one or more of the vehicles was electric, and it was battery fire. Frankly, I doubt it; Li-ion battery fires are notoriously difficult to fight, and the damage is all to the front, while the batteries of electric vehicles they are in the rear and underneath. Pretty odd, though.

Via Insty
Speaking of flaming, Ace woke up yesterday afternoon and noticed Sam Brinton, Biden's Genderfluid, Puppy Perversion Official In Charge of Nuclear Materials, Charged With Felony Theft of a Woman's Luggage. At WaEx, Paul Bedard says the Theft case against Biden nonbinary aide Sam Brinton is admittedly getting ‘weirder’. Jordan Boyd at Da Fed notes the Biden Energy Dept. Won’t Say If It Will Fire Cross-Dresser Charged With Felony For Allegedly Stealing Lady’s Luggage. I would be very surprised if that happens. It is in a protected class. Stacy McCain Crazy People Are Dangerous (and They’re Working for the Biden Administration) if for no other reason that they're crazy. "It doesn’t make sense, but that’s just the way it is with lunatics — their behavior doesn’t make sense, like when 81 million people decided that Joe Biden should be President of the United States, a completely crazy choice that has had predictably crazy consequences." At the Wombat's In The Mailbox: 11.29.22 (Evening Edition), EBL chimes in with Biden’s Baggage Bandit Brinton Busted and Nice Deb (at Am Great) contributes Transgender Pup Fetishist DOE Official Charged With Stealing Woman’s Luggage at Minneapolis Airport.

The Biden Rail Strike appears to be on track. Da Caller reports Biden’s Big Union Deal Could Be About To Implode. Capt. Ed at Haut Hair, Biden passing the buck to Congress on rail strike -- and union blowback; Rubio: I stand with the workers and Pelosi: We'll hold a floor vote tomorrow to impose Biden's deal on rail workers. What happened to the party of labor? 

'Bonchie' at Red State hears Biden COVID 'Lead' Inadvertently Says the Quiet Part out Loud on CensorshipJeremy Konyndyk@JeremyKonyndyk "Farewell to Twitter's health care ad revenue." The Manhattan Contrarian wants to  Talk About Biden Corruption. Enough talk; it's time for indictments. Joe Curl at Da Wire says D.C. is Abuzz With Chatter About Biden Replacing VP Harris. With what? She checks all the boxes except ability. Don Devine at Am Spec makes the case that Bureaucratization and Peril Haunt the Modern Presidency "A president cannot succeed without personal loyalty to him and his program," putting all Republicans at a disadvantage. 

John Sexton at Haut takes note that Tom Nichols admit Never Trump really meant never Republican. Duuuuh. Spin, Strangeness and Charm wonders  Was the Nick Fuentes meeting a setup? Does 45 have a mole in his personal staff, or are they just that incompetent? [UPDATE: you wouldn’t believe it]. Milo Yiannopoulos was involved? Definitely. "And, Yiannopoulos said, he arranged the dinner “just to make Trump’s life miserable” because news of the dinner would leak and Trump would mishandle it." Jeff Lord at Am Spec offers up A House GOP Opportunity: A Resolution Calling on Biden, Democrats to Apologize for Dem Support for Slavery "Democrat support of slavery was once official party policy — and no apologies yet." He' right. Edward Mike at Am Think considers Should it be Trump or DeSantis in 2024?

At Breitbart, Judge Rules Trump Ally Devin Nunes Can Sue NBC Universal for Defamation "The complaint filed by the Nunes legal team alleged MSNBC and Rachel Maddow knew that the package had been given to the FBI but chose to instead “inflict maximum pain and suffering” on Nunes to harm his reputation." I hope it's filed in his home district, because DC won't work. From the Wombat's In The Mailbox: 11.29.22 (Evening Edition), at the Volokh Conspiracy: Devin Nunes’ Libel Claim Over Rachel Maddow Show Broadcast Can Proceed for Now, as to One Assertion.

Capt. Ed, Gulp: Warnock's war chest triple that of Walker's. Insty, ONCE AGAIN WE HAVE A CLOSE RUNOFF IN GEORGIA THAT IS IMPORTANT TO SENATE CONTROL, AND THE GOP IS LETTING IT SLIDE: Gulp: Warnock’s war chest triple that of Walker’s. Is it because they know the fix is in, or because they don’t want to win? Jazz Shaw at Haut Hair, Latest residency accusations could spell trouble for Walker. At Da Caller, MSNBC Anchor: Georgia Voter Turnout Shatters Expectations, which is not normally a great thing for the GOP. I hope they've learned to scavenge votes like Stacy Abrams, but I doubt it.

At Da Wire, Democrats Flip Pennsylvania State House In Another Massive Midterm Loss For Republicans, Promise ‘Center-Left’ Agenda, giving Democrats control over the electoral machinery. At Da Caller, How The GOP Establishment Made An Avoidable Mistake In The Midterms. Only one? At NewsMax, Rep. Kevin McCarthy to Newsmax: Dems Could Pick Speaker If GOP Isn't Careful. At the Conservative Brief, Carmine Sabia warns Democrats Could Pick Speaker If Republicans Continue Fighting. I suspect the Republicans will get it together at the last possible second. Meanwhile, Democrats chose election denier Hakeem Jeffries —  first Black party leader in Congress (WaPoo).

WaPoo also reports Oath Keepers founder Stewart Rhodes guilty of Jan. 6 seditious conspiracy. Rhodes seems like a nut, but I don't trust DC juries or DC judges anymore. At Twitchy, a Detailed thread shows FBI OBLITERATED bedrock civil liberties in their J6 quest to ‘Defend Democracy’

Matt Vespa at Town Hall explains Why the 'Power Grab' Case That's Heading to the Supreme Court Could Give the Left Fits.

The legal beef that must be settled is whether it was constitutional for the North Carolina state Supreme Court to dismiss the latest redistricting map, which heavily favored Republicans. It’s a test of the “independent state legislature doctrine.” That legal position says that state/local courts cannot interfere in the redistricting process—the pickle here for those arguing in favor of the doctrine is that the Tar Heel state passed a law granting local courts the authority to review the maps. If successfully argued, critics warn that the “independent state legislature doctrine” could pave the way for single-party rule. Speaker of the North Carolina House of Representatives Tim Moore sued voter Rebecca Harper, leading us to this final legal showdown (via The Week) . . . 

 Jay Valentine at Am Think thinks Here’s How They Did it: Real-time Election Fraud

County election managers change the zip code of 31,000 voters on September 3. Ballots go out that week. Those 31,000 are undeliverable. Someone collects those valid ballots. On September 15th, those addresses are quietly changed back.

National Change of Address Database (NCOA) will not pick up those address changes. They didn’t happen because there is no history.

The 31,000 citizens were getting their mail just fine -- except for ballots. Ballot addresses were driven by the county mail-in ballot database -- the one that was changed, then changed back.

Many states send ballots to everyone; the recipient is none the wiser that they never received a mail-in ballot. They may vote in person. Oops! “You already voted!” Ever heard that?

David Strom at Haut Hair notes that Elon Musk is now a Russian stooge apparently for bringing freedom of speech back to Twitter. Ace, DeSantis: Apple's Threat to Deplatform Twitter from Its App Store is an Act of "Raw Monopolistic Power" Which Should Be Met by Congressional Action. From Althouse, Dear Tim Cook... Love, Josh Hawley. Josh Hawley@HawleyMO, "I’d like to know why ⁦ @Apple⁩ continues to aid and abet the totalitarian regime in #China while campaigning against free speech at home. My letter to Tim Cook"

The Wednesday Wetness

 Featuring Ashley Kidd, 5 times World Champion Wake Boarder:

Tuesday, November 29, 2022

Can Acorns Save the Bay?

I doubt it. But, at the Bay Bulletin, Acorns In Short Supply: Volunteers Collect Acorns For A Cleaner Bay Watershed

Raking up fallen leaves is a staple of autumn yardwork. But for some people in Maryland and Virginia, fall is also acorn collection season. These all-too-often ignored seeds are actually critical to creating a future Chesapeake Bay watershed that has cleaner air, cleaner water, and more green spaces for all.

People who collect acorns are a large part of making this future possible. During the 2022 acorn collection season, which ended in October, public contributions in Virginia were higher than ever.

Joshua McLaughlin, the assistant nursery manager at the Virginia Department of Forestry’s Augusta Nursery, estimated that four to five tons of seeds were collected by the public. McLaughlin explained that the nursery will grow the seeds for a season before selling the seedlings for primarily reforestation, riparian buffers, and watershed planting projects on private and state property.

“We’re thinking about the forests of tomorrow,” he says.

Alexis Dickerson, senior director of community conservation at the Potomac Conservancy, is thinking along similar lines. Dickerson helps run a program called Tomorrow’s Trees, which focuses on “community-powered collective action” and getting people involved in more meaningful conservation work connected to their everyday lives.

Rebranded from a previously fizzled program, Tomorrow’s Trees focused this year on laying the groundwork for future acorn collection and tree planting work. They helped to establish seed drop off sites and built capacity within communities so they can run their own seed collection, since seeds drop off trees at different times each year.

Acorn collection is more important now than ever because of state tree planting targets. Virginia has a goal in their plan to clean up the Chesapeake Bay to plant nine million new trees by 2025. Last year, Maryland passed a law requiring the state plant five million native trees by 2031.

“These initiatives put pressure on state nurseries,” Dickenson explains. “Every seed that you plant isn’t going to germinate. If you want to plant five million trees, you’re going to need tens of millions of seeds.”

“Good quality, native tree seeds are one of our most limiting factors to achieving our 5 million trees goal,” Anne Hairston-Strang, acting director of the Maryland Forest Service, said.

Public acorn collection can make the difference for these state nurseries that are competing with commercial suppliers for the same seed stock. People power can also help out staff like Francis Smith, a natural resources planner with the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, who is the only staff member delivering seeds to the state nursery.

“We are obviously in need of volunteer help,” he said.

Last year, I think our yard alone could have provided most of the 4 or 5 tons of acorns sought. This year, we had hardly any. That's the way it goes with trees that have mast years.

We lost a big oak in the back lot last night. We had noticed it was leaning, but based on the direction of the lean, we thought it wasn't going to hit anything costly. Fortunately we were right.

Winter is Coming!

Snow extent in the Northern Hemisphere at the end of November represents an important parameter for the early winter forecast. This year snow extent is running much higher than average and according to existing global estimates, it is now beyond the highest ever observed so far. Winter forecast, especially in its early phase and in Europe, might be strongly influenced by such a large snow extent, although many other factors need attention.

Northern Hemisphere snow extent is currently indeed very high, now at about 41 million square kilometers, according to the NOAA/Rutgers Global Snow Lab. The most recent snow cover information is given in the image below.


The Weekly Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent for the winter season 2022-2023 in purple is plotted together with the mean (grey dashed line), maximum (blue), and minimum (orange) snow cover extent for each week. Mean weekly snow cover extent and extremes were calculated using the 56-year period from October 1966 to July 2022.



Looking at the below Rutgers Daily Snow Extent map, it is clearly noticeable how Russia is completely covered in snow now. Snow is also seen overwhelming all of Canada, and Alaska, as well as a good portion of the Lower 48. This is an important parameter for the early winter forecast.

You could probably forecast a colder-than-normal winter based on Autumnal Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent alone. It’s the largest snow extent in decades. Having so much snow on the ground means any arctic outbreak is going to be a little bit colder. . . .

A long detailed explanation follows.  From WUWT, Ace Forecaster Bastardi: “Something We Used to See In 1970s”, Warns Of “Spectacular Cold”

In his most recent Weatherbell Saturday Summary, veteran meteorologist Joe Bastardi looks ahead at the winter weather over the coming weeks across the globe.

What definitely distinguishes Joe from forecasters I follow here in Germany is that he doesn’t rely solely on the so-called ensemble models to make his longer term forecasts, but goes way back into the archives and searches for similar patterns that took place even decades ago (analogues) in order to better discern which way the weather is likely to turn in the weeks ahead.

German forecasters like here , here and here like to put out videos once or even twice daily to report on what the many model ensembles are showing, which is something no one really needs a meteorological license to do. Too often you hear these weather pundits suddenly change their 7+ day forecast, in lockstep with whatever the latest ensemble run crunches out. Yet, most of us know that such forecasts are only valid until the next ensemble run because 7 days out the models can and often make U-turns. 


In Joe’s latest forecast, he again makes use of analogue years to forecast weeks ahead. I recall a forecast he made some 2 weeks ago warning that early December likely will turn cold in Europe – long before anyone else – basing it on weather patterns seen over past decades. Lo and behold, now the models are finally seeing wintry weather for next weekend.

In his latest forecast, Joe has become “very concerned” about the coming cold, which is going to be a real problem for not only people in the US, but around the globe.


“Mark my word, if this kind of cold shows up, that we’ve been setting up since the end of summer, and it looks like it at least has merit to consider, there’s going to be a blaming on climate change because of the blocking that caused it.”

Joe worries that many countries aren’t going to have sufficient energy to meet the forecast cold challenges, something politically inexcusable in 2022 with all our modern technology. . . .

So far, our fall has been relatively mild.  I hope a turn for the worse is not in store. But being a La Nina year, it seems possible. 


Nuclear Waste Queen Charged with Felony, Mess in Maricopa Continues, Elon to Release Twitter Censorship Files

Sam Brinton
Not the biggest political story of the year, but one of the more amusing. Sam Brinton, the Biden Admin. Nuclear Energy Waste Czar, and flamboyantly nonbinary gendered, was charged with felony theft after taking a woman bag that wasn't his/hers at an airport, with bag and goods estimated at more than $2000. Awrd for best title to Dan Greenfield at Front Page, Biden’s Nuclear Drag Queen Stole Women’s Clothing. David Strom at Haut Hair, Biden's transgender DOE appointee is charged with a felony. Sundance at CTH, Non-Binary Nuclear Waste Official Arrested for Stealing Womans Luggage and Clothes. Alpha News, Controversial energy official charged with stealing woman’s luggage at MSP. Bob Spencer at PJ Media, Biden's 'Gender-Fluid' Nuclear Waste 'Puppy' Makes a Mess in Minneapolis. I have no doubt it will be pled down to a misdemeanor with no time served and no job lost, except maybe a cop.

Lunden Roberts posed with her daughter
Navy, who was fathered by Hunter Biden
In other Biden Admin news,  NYPo reveals Hunter Biden’s love child snubbed again in White House stocking display. A baby with a stripper for a mother, a crack-head for a dad, and a president for Grandpa. Paul Bedard at WaEx calls Investigate! 62% want Hunter Biden probed. James Lynch at Da Caller reports Biden’s Former ‘Disinfo’ Czar Registers As Foreign Agent "Former head of the Disinformation Governance Board at the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nina Jankowicz has registered as a foreign agent, records show. Jankowicz submitted registration documents required by the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA), which show she now works for the UK-based Centre for Information Resilience." Ace, Leftwing Propaganda Organs Politico and NYT Moan: Biden Is Actually Serious About Running Again, "Last week, John Sexton noted that Politico worried that Biden... "refuses to leave the stage." Or, is not "ready to cede the stage," as they put it." At Haut Hair, Washington's dirty little secret: No one likes Kamala. At the Conservative Brief, a Report, Joe Biden Urged To Ditch Kamala Harris In 2024

Speaking of unloved, at Am Great, the redoubtable Julie Kelly observes Everybody Hates Liz Cheney. "Pimped by Democrats, used by the news media, abandoned by Republicans, and disliked by the public, Cheney, like her father, might have managed to tick off almost everyone on her way out the door." Tristan Justice at Da Fed, J6 Democrats Sour On ‘Cheney 2024.’  Also at WaEx, Adam Schiff: Jan. 6 committee will 'scrub' evidence before final report. He says to remove personal identification of witnesses.  At Breitbart, Schiff: Will ‘Consider the Validity’ of GOP Subpoena Before I Comply and  GOP Rep. Comer: Oversight Committee Will Investigate ’40 or 50 Different Things’. Jazz Shaw at Haut Hair, Schiff doesn't know if he would obey a GOP subpoena to testify. That's easy, put him in the House jail until he complies. They have one. Treat him like the J6 prisoners and deny him medical care. At ET, 42 Biden Admin Officials Put on Notice by House Republicans. At JTN, Kellyanne Conway meets with Jan. 6 committee investigators. "She had already left the Trump administration by Jan. 6, 2021, but reportedly called a Trump aide to encourage the president to ask his supporters to leave the grounds."

Atop Da Hill, Wall Street Journal editors on dinner with Nick Fuentes: ‘Trump isn’t going to change.’ At Da Wire, Pence Calls On Trump To ‘Apologize For’ Dining With Holocaust Denier At Mar-A-Lago. Ace, Byron York: Kanye West Duped Trump Into Providing Him With a Launching Pad for His 2024 Vanity Presidential Run. "And also damaged Trump in doing so. After trying and failing to quell the controversy about the dinner, Trump issued a new statement in which he attacks "Ye."" Nevertheless, at Town Hall Kurt Schlichter makes The Case Against Everyone Else 2024 – Part 1.

At Radar, Herschel Walker Comes Under Fire After Claiming Most Americans 'Haven't Earned The Right' To Change The Country. True, but impolitic to say. NPR prays Democrats made midterm gains in rural areas. Can they keep them? Can we at least make the Democrats fund NPR since it's a Democrat mouthpiece? At Pox, 5 Republicans publicly oppose McCarthy's speakership bid, putting ascension to leadership role in jeopardy." Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy can only lose four votes if full 435-member House of Representatives votes for speaker."  Breitbart expresses fear, Exclusive — Conservatives Warn of ‘Doomsday Scenario’ if McCarthy Fails in Speaker Race Where Democrats Neuter GOP Power. At Da Caller, Virginia Democrat Congressman Donald McEachin Dead At 61 Colon cancer. A special election for his replacement will be called at a date chosen by Gov. Glenn Youngkin (R).

For some reason or another, the vote in Maricopa is still in the news. at ET Jack Phillips , Maricopa County Should ‘Delay Certification’ of 2022 Election: GOP and Katabella Roberts, Maricopa County Responds to Arizona Attorney General Inquiry, Defends Way It Handled Election. At Gateway Pundit, Maricopa County Response to AZ AG Materially Conflicts with Instructions on Election Day – But They Announce They Will Certify Rigged Election TOMORROW Anyway Rules? Rules are for suckers. Charlotte Hazard at JTN, Maricopa County certifies election results over residents' grievances about polling station problems. "'My ballot looked perfect and no matter what I did, the tabulator would not accept it,' one Maricopa resident said." Also, Arizona county refuses to certify election, could face potential lawsuit. "Arizona's deadline for counties to certify election results is Nov. 28 and Cochise County may be sued for missing the deadline. At Da Caller, Arizona County Refuses To Certify Election Results, Threatening A GOP House Win. Cochise County, in protest to the Maricopa mess. At Da Caller, Trump insists Kari Lake should be 'installed as Governor of Arizona' because of 'broken voting machines' - as six counties still left counting told to certify results TODAY.

Selwyn Duke at Am Think thinks The New Voting System that Gave Democrats a GOP House Seat is Dangerous. Here’s Why. Ranked choice, 

Nick Arama at Red State Elon Drops Bombshell About 'Free Speech Suppression' Files He's Found
Rising serpent @rising_serpent Replying to @elonmusk "Make sure you tweet that you are not suicidal, stay away from all bed sheets and make sure that all security cameras around you are working." At Da Wire, Musk Releasing Files On How Twitter Suppressed Free Speech. Sundance, Twitter CEO Elon Musk Says He Will Publicly Reveal Twitter’s “Files on Free Speech,” and Implies Coordination with Government. Insty, MUSK: “THE TWITTER FILES ON FREE SPEECH SUPPRESSION SOON TO BE PUBLISHED ON TWITTER ITSELF.” "It’s really too bad that he committed suicide tomorrow before he could publish that info. Who knew he was even depressed?" Ace, Apple Threatening to Deplatform Twitter Unless It Begins Censoring People The Way Gay-and-Trans Crazy Apple Demands; Musk Threatens to Release All the Dirty Laundry of Twitter's Previous Internal Censorship Discussions Liz Wheeler @Liz_Wheeler "I predicted this the day @ElonMusk said he was gonna buy Twitter. Woke Apple *has* to deplatform Twitter because free speech is an existential threat to Marxism. The left doesn't "fight for the marginalized." The left are Marxists. Proud of Elon for refusing to bend a knee." At Summit News, Twitter Bans Multiple Antifa Accounts After Threats And Attempts To Burn Down Tesla Dealerships. Kevin Downey at PJ Media, Don't Be Fooled — Antifa Is America's Nazis. And an enforcement arm of Democrat party. 

Tattoo Tuesday

Researchers from State University of New York at Binghamton analyzed 56 popular inks often used by American tattoo artists, uncovering that 23 of them have potentially hazardous azo-compounds.

While azo-compounds are not a cause for concern while chemically intact, bacteria or ultraviolet light can degrade them into another compound that is carcinogenic.

“Very little is actually known about the composition of tattoo inks, so we started analyzing popular brands,” the study’s lead author John Swierk said in a statement after Wednesday’s fall meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS).

“Surprisingly, no dye shop makes pigment specific for tattoo ink,” Swierk further stated. “Big companies manufacture pigments for everything, such as paint and textiles. These same pigments are used in tattoo inks.”